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Preparedness Funding, PHEP, HPP, HSGP, EMPG: Who Gets What?

Preparedness Funding, PHEP, HPP, HSGP, EMPG: Who Gets What?

On March 5th, Congress passed the appropriations bill to fund the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and in doing so set the funding opportunities for the Homeland Security Grant Program (HSGP) and Emergency Management Performance Grant (EMPG) Program. With the Public Health Emergency Preparedness (PHEP) and Hospital Preparedness Program (HPP) appropriations already in place, the 2015–2016 preparedness picture is in focus. We now know that continuation funding for eight authorized preparedness programs is $2,257,250,000.

So, the question now is, who gets what and when?

Background

The Stafford Act, Homeland Security Act (HSA), and Pandemic and All Hazards Preparedness Act (PAHPA) are the laws that authorize federal preparedness programs offered through the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). And it is these programs that states most rely on for disaster and health emergency preparedness activities.

Collectively, the three laws authorize eight programs, which are offered to states, territories, commonwealths, freely associated states, and, in the case of PHEP and HPP, four separately funded cities, through three annual funding opportunities.  For simplicity sake, the term ‘state’ will be used as a collective term for all federal awardees.

So, we know have three laws and eight programs.  The eight programs are offered through three ‘funding opportunities’ that are available to eligible 'awardees,' which are ‘states.’  When a state's authorized agent (Principal Investigator) receives a funding opportunity announcement (FOA), applies, and the application is accepted, he/she has agreed to the terms of a 'cooperative agreement' that dictates the expectations.  And, in the case of preparedness funds, the terms include mandatory sub grants to local government entities and non-governmental organizations (NGO).

It is important to understand that when it comes to cooperative agreements, the contractual relationship is between the federal government and the state, regardless of sub grant requirements.

Once the states have a signed cooperative agreement and the funds become available, they can develop 'sub grants' to offer funding downstream to counties, cities, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs).  Recipients are said to be ‘sub-grantees' rather than 'awardees,' and they accept 'grants' instead of ‘cooperative agreements.

Emergency management agencies, public health departments, healthcare coalitions, NGOs, and others who accept federal funding through state sub grants enter into a contractual relationship with the state, not the federal government.  And it is the states responsibility to develop and enforce sub grants with their sub grantees.

It is important to recognize that the aforementioned laws only authorize the programs' existence.  They do not provide funding required to implement them each year.  Funding is dependent upon the annual appropriates process, which can become entangled in political negotiations between the House of Representatives, the Senate, and the White House– as was the case with the DHS funding bill this year.

With federal funding 101 behind us, let's take brief look at what is on the table for 2015–2016, and who gets what.

Emergency Management Performance Grant (EMPG) Program Cooperative Agreement

The EMPG funding opportunity is issued through DHS, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Grant Programs Directorate to assist state, local, tribal and territorial governments in preparing for all hazards.  It is the only federal preparedness grant with mandatory sub grant requirements to support local emergency management agencies.

The EMPG is authorized under the Post-Katrina Emergency Management Reform Act of 2006 (PKEMRA), as amended, the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, as amended, the Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act of 1977, as amended, and the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968, as amended.  It is dependent upon annual appropriations.

bParati HMPG/EMPG/Biowatch Program Description Table

The FOA states, "[t]itle VI of the Stafford Act authorizes FEMA to make grants for the purpose of providing a system of emergency preparedness for the protection of life and property in the United States from hazards and to vest responsibility for emergency preparedness jointly in the federal government and the states and their political subdivisions."

There are 56 eligible state awardees who are required to offer sub grants to support local emergency management agencies within their jurisdictions.  2015–2016 appropriations are $350,000,000, which is the same as 2014–2015.  Funds will come available for sub grant from the states in the fall of 2015. The anticipated funding date has not yet been established.

Stay tuned for our deep dig into the 2015–2016 EMPG FOA, once it is released to the states.

Homeland Security Grant Program (HSGP) Cooperative Agreement

The HSGP funding opportunity is issued through DHS/FEMA, Grant Programs Directorate to support the building, sustainment, and delivery of core capabilities essential to achieving the National Preparedness Goal (NPG).  It is authorized under the HSA of 2002, as amended, and is dependent upon annual appropriations.

The HSGP supports core capabilities across the five mission areas of Prevention, Protection, Mitigation, Response, and Recovery, and is comprised of three interconnected grant programs:

There are 56 eligible state awardees for the SHSP, whereas the UASI and OPSG programs vary from year to depending upon funding and projected risk. The UASI program is the largest of the three programs and is sub granted to regional coalitions that are determined based on a risk analysis of the nations largest 100 metro areas.  The OPSG Program is available only to states with international borders or that border international waters.

2015–2016 appropriations are $600,000,000 for UASI, $412,000,000 for the SHSP, and $55,000,00 for OPSG. The aggregate is a slight increase over 2014–2015.  Funds will come available for sub grant from the states in the fall of 2015. The anticipated funding date has not yet been established.

As its name implies, the HSGP is a homeland security program, not an emergency management program. Though there is crossover in many areas, the majority of program funds are dedicated to terrorism related protection and prevention activities in the nation's largest metropolitan regions.

Stay tuned for our deep dig into the 2015–2016 HSGP FOA, once it is released to the states.

Hospital Preparedness Program (HPP)/Public Health Emergency Preparedness (PHEP) Cooperative Agreement

The HPP/PHEP funding opportunity is issued through Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR), Division of State and Local Readiness (DSLR).  It is authorized under the Pandemic and All Hazards Preparedness Act (PAHPA), as amended.

Though the funding opportunity is issued through the CDC, it includes both the PHEP and HPP cooperative agreements. The PHEP and HPP FOA's were consolidated in 2012 to reduce the administrative burden on the states by providing for one application and one reporting mechanism. The consolidation also promoted better alignment of the HPP, which is administered by the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response (ASPR), and the PHEP program administered by CDC/OPHPR.

The HPP portion of the cooperative agreement "is to build and maintain prepared healthcare systems, advance the development and maturation of healthcare coalitions, strengthen regional coordination, and ensure the healthcare system can maintain operations and surge to provide acute medical care during all- hazards emergencies."

The PHEP portion of the cooperative agreement states that, "[a]wardees must consult with local public health departments or other subdivisions within their jurisdictions to reach consensus, approval, or concurrence on the overall strategies, approaches, and priorities described in their work plans and on the relative distribution of funding as outlined in the budgets associated with the work plans. Awardees do not need to obtain concurrence on the specific funding amounts but rather the process and formula used to determine local health department amounts."

bParati ASPR/HPP, CDC/PHEP Program Description Table

The FOA is comprised of four interconnected grant programs necessary for fulfillment of the Emergency Support Function #8 mission:

There are 62 eligible state awardees for the HPP and PHEP Base Program, 54 for PHEP/CRI, and 10 for PHEP/Lab. Funds will come available for sub grant from the states on July 1, 2015.  That said, it generally takes at least three months for states to issue sub grants, so availability of local funds generally falls in October or November.

2015–2016 appropriations are: $228,500,000 for HPP, $546,940,949 for PHEP Base, $53,222,251 for the CRI, and $11,586,800 for Lab.  HPP and aggregate PHEP appropriations are the same as 2014–2015.

 HPP funds are directed at the development and maintenance of multidiscipline regional healthcare coalitions. And states are being mandated to sub grants from individual hospital facility preparedness to healthcare system preparedness. PHEP sub grants, both Base and CRI, are directed to local health departments, and Lab funding to the 10 Level One State Labs.

Stay tuned for our deep dig into the 2015–2016 HPP/PHEP FOA in the coming weeks.

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Karl Schmitt, MPA

Karl Schmitt, MPA


Karl is the Passionate Founder & CEO of bParati. He is on a mission to build a national network of effective, sustainable healthcare coalitions. More...

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